Image: Iravatham Mahadevan
Image: Iravatham Mahadevan

If you modify an Indus symbol by adding one point of light at each of the cardinal points, it denotes that whatever is pictured in the centre is true at all times of day (in other words, regardless of where the light source is). This is a composite of the verb to deliver with the adverb always. Hence, the translation is always deliver.

Illustrative Text References:

Mohenjo-daro: Seal: M-1118 A (There is no view a): Sayid Ghulam Mustafa Shah and Asko Parpola, 1991: Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions: Volume 2: Page 121: Collections in Pakistan: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia.


Mohenjo-daro: Seal: M-1793 a: Asko Parpola, B. M. Pande, and Petteri Koskikallio, 2010: Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions: Volume 3,1: Page 51: New material, untraced objects, and collections outside India and Pakistan: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia.


M-1118 is an example of a seal with just one Indus character. However, the motif is a zebu bull. The bull's horns take the shape of the body of a cart. Hence, we know that the seal belonged to a carter.

Image Credit:

Indus Script Sign Number 60: Sign List of the Indus Script: Iravatham Mahadevan, 1977: The Indus Script: Texts, Concordance and Tables: The Director General Archaeological Survey of India.